The four laws of ecology and the four anti-ecological laws of capitalism

JOHN BELLAMY FOSTER—In the first part of the chapter, Foster discusses the “qualitative transformation in the level of human destructiveness” that characterized capitalist production after World War II. This transformation included massive increases in the use of synthetics that could not be readily reabsorbed by nature, accompanied by a radical expansion in the use of all forms of energy, particularly fossil fuels.


‘The pig that wanted to be eaten:’ A discussion on the representation of animals in consumer culture

SHANE SAYERS—Throughout history animals have been attributed magical qualities and depicted as spiritual messengers, yet within the context of modern Western society our relationship with animals is defined primarily by our dependency on them for meat (Berger 12). Meat has long been considered the most highly prized food in Western culture, serving as the centre of every meal. Meat was once seen as a sign of privilege; however, it has come to be regarded as somewhat of a right for Westerners. The status of meat however is accompanied by ambivalence; ‘animal derived foods have a potential for provoking unease that is not found in vegetable foods’