GARY OLSON—Although I also lived in Minnesota and South Dakota, my formative years were spent in Fargo, North Dakota along the Red River of the North on the eastern border of the state. The city was named for William Fargo, an owner of the Wells-Fargo Express Company and one of the directors of the Union Pacific Railroad whose tracks ran through the center of town and held up traffic three times a day. When UP engineers and surveyors first arrived, they were accompanied by U.S. Army officers. This continuing symbiotic partnership between the capitalist state and big business was exemplified by Congress granting rail companies 10 million acres of free public land in Minnesota, amounting to 20 percent of the state’s land area. It was, of course, in the interest of railroad officials to lure immigrants to the region because it increased the value of their line. The construction of Fort Abercrombie in 1857, just thirty miles south of Fargo and the first fort in North Dakota, helped prompt immigrants to surge into the region through the “Gateway to the West” and stake their claims. Fort Abercrombie was followed by six more military bases across the state in the 1860s and early 1870s.
HISTORYIMPERIALISMIMPERIALIST SICKNESSNATIVE AMERICANS /INDIGENOUS
We are here focusing on literary forgeries, but there were other kinds. Michelangelo himself launched his own career by faking antique statues, including one known as the Sleeping Cupid (now lost), while under the employment of the Medici family in Florence. He used acidic earth to make the statue look antique. It was sold through a dealer to Cardinal Riario of San Giorgio, who eventually found out the hoax and demanded his money back, but didn’t press any charges against the artist. Apart from this recognized forgery, Lynn Catterson has made a strong case that the sculptural group of “Laocoon and his Sons,” dated from around 40 BC and supposedly discovered in 1506 in a vineyard in Rome and immediately acquired by Pope Julius II, is another of Michelangelo’s forgery
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THE FINNISH BOLSHEVIK—After one hundred years of controversy, the Kronstadt rebellion continues to cause controversy and divide the left, proof of its confusing and largely falsified history, much of it intentional, notes The Finnish Bolshevik, and we agree.
Romans hated the Golden House. Nero was known to have murdered his mother, his wife, and his stepbrother. People were suspicious of him starting the blaze. Nero had almost moved into his new home when he learned of widespread uprisings against his rule. The generals commanding Rome’s greatest armies refused to obey Nero’s orders, saying that they would make better emperors themselves. Abandoned by everyone, Nero killed himself.
18 months of war came out after Nero’s death as rival generals fought each other for power. Respectively, three men became emperor in Rome, (Galba , Otho and Vitellius).
By the end of A.D. 69, Vespasian became the new emperor, an old general. In the previous 18 months, four Roman emperors had died. Vespasian did not want to to be the fifth dead emperor. So, he wanted to be loved by the people of Rome.
Vespasian decided to pull down most of Nero’s hated Golden House and to open the grounds as a public garden. He also planned to build a huge amphitheater for public show.
ANTI-IMPERIALISM FIGHTERSANTI-NEOLIBERALISMHISTORYIMPERIALISMIMPERIALIST SICKNESS
MAX PARRY—Contrary to what one might assume, the boundary dispute does not date back centuries and its roots are relatively modern, despite the interrelated historical persecution of Armenians by the Turks and Ottoman Empire. As many have noted, the foundations for the war which began in 1988 were laid not in antiquity but decades prior during the establishment of the Soviet republics in the South Caucasus following the Russian Revolution. More specifically, the controversial decision by Joseph Stalin in 1921 to incorporate the region into Azerbaijan would have enormous consequences when the USSR later dissolved, as the vast majority of the population within the upland territory have historically been ethnic Armenians.